Author – Dr. Paulius Astromskis
This paper inquires into the complex issue of the regulation of intelligent machines. The aim is to develop, considering all ontological levels of law, a framework that would ensure a balance between freedom and control of the most sophisticated technological innovations. To achieve this objective, the first part of the paper defines the general concept, elements, and ontology of law and regulation. This is followed by a critical analysis of the Trifecta model of regulation based on information technology in order to determine whether it can be used as a framework for intelligent machines regulation. After having ascertained that the Trifecta model needs to be augmented with a moral (values) domain, the quadfecta framework for intelligent machine regulation is proposed in the last part or the paper. This framework promulgates the idea of a dynamic interrelation between the behavior, the technology in use, the rules, and “the Law”, where changes in one domain result in changes in the other three. A follow-up research agenda for issues involving intelligent machine regulation is then discussed in the concluding remarks of the paper.
artificial intelligence; regulation; machine morality; machine justice; machine behavior; technology law
Author – Dr. Paulius Astromskis
This pilot research provides a systematic review of Law & Tech master programs in selected European Union (EU) universities. The systematic multi-stage sampling process completed the list of 38 Law & Tech master programs, offered by 35 leading universities in 11 high-tech EU member states, for extraction and grouping of almost 600 subjects offered in these programs. This analysis exposed the frequency of subject appearance in the sample of programs, followed by the choice of 16 most frequent subjects using the rule of thumb for a hypothetical Law & Tech master program. Moreover, this analysis revealed the need of inquiry into (i) the alternative practices of technology related skills infusion into the law curriculum; and (ii) variables that impact the choices of Law & Tech program’s structure and curriculum. Following these conclusions, universities in the Netherlands were purposively selected for content analysis of their Law & Tech program’s descriptions. Such inquiry enabled categorization of arguments that supports radical inclusion of technology’s domain into law’s curriculum, thus completing the list of key variables for further research on Future of Legal Education.
Keywords: Technology Law, Legal Technologies, Law & Tech, LegalTech, Legal Education
Authors – Dr. Aušrinė Pasvenskienė, Dr. Paulius Astromskis
This article explores how emerging technologies should shape legal studies, recognizing that the new technological era requires a new generation of tech-savvy lawyers who possess specific technology-related skills and knowledge. Analysis of the future of work through the lens of the International Labor Organization Centenary Declaration, followed by an analysis of the right to education, led to the formation of a theoretical justification of the legal duty to adapt the legal education curriculum to a technology-driven future. This article also exposes the existing state of the legal education curriculum with a systematic analysis of the existing Law & Tech master’s programs at leading universities worldwide. This research demonstrates that relatively few (9.8%) leading world universities offer specialized Law & Tech master’s programs. This clear underdevelopment of the Law & Tech curriculum suggests that deeply embedded conservatism in legal education might be violating the rights of future lawyers – the right to work and the right to education, in particular.
Keywords: Right to work, right to education, legal education, Law & Tech, LegalTech
Authors – Kristina Astromskė, Dr. Eimantas Peičius, Dr. Paulius Astromskis
This paper inquiries into the complex issue of informed consent applying artificial intelligence in medical diagnostic consultations. The aim is to expose the main ethical and legal concerns of the New Health phenomenon, powered by intelligent machines. To achieve this objective, the first part of the paper analyzes ethical aspects of the alleged right to explanation, privacy, and informed consent, applying artificial intelligence in medical diagnostic consultations. This analysis is followed by a legal analysis of the limits and requirements for the explainability of artificial intelligence. Followed by this analysis, recommendations for action are given in the concluding remarks of the paper.
Medical diagnostics, informed consent, opacity, trust, artificial intelligence, medical ethics, right to explanation